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    過節一般有著四種意義:記憶、盡孝、休閑與交往

    時間:2016-07-01 / 點擊:次 / 文章投稿

    親朋好友相互間,多通過節日來表達良好的祝愿,這也是中華民族的一個傳統。但節日的祝語,且有著一定的文化講究。臨近端午,我向一些朋友發了一條短信:端午快樂!以表示我的記得和情誼連續。然而,有一位朋友對此給我上了一課,說,端午節不能說“快樂”,應該說“安康”,因為端午節是祭祀、緬懷和驅除病邪的節日。這里的“安”字,是針對祭祀和緬懷而言的,而“康”字,則是針對驅除病邪而言的。聽后,覺得頗有道理,逐在后來的端午短信中改了過來。

    對此,我還專門在網上查閱了“端午祝語”,以佐證我這位朋友的釋義正確;但是,網上超過九成,不是直接的“端午快樂”,就是間接的包含“快樂”的順口溜,且很少用帶有點古氣的“安康”。難道,這么多人都背義了嗎?納悶之際,我又專題學習了“端午”的釋文古說,想再深入一下,看看那里面有沒有可以說“快樂”的成份,如果沒有,那足以說明,我的朋友是對的,而網上的眾多人是背義了。

    從查閱一些字典、書籍來看,端午節起源于中國,與春節、清明節、中秋節并稱為漢族等民族的四大傳統節日。2008年起,端午節被列為國家法定節假日。2006年5月,國務院將其列入首批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄;2009年9月,聯合國教科文組織正式審議并批準中國端午節列入世界非物質文化遺產,成為中國首個入選世界非遺的節日。

    按文字說,“端”為開頭、初始的意思,稱“端五”也就如稱“初五”。古人習慣把五月的前幾天分別以端來稱呼,元代陳元靚《歲時廣記》云:“京師市塵人,以五月初一為端一,初二為端二,數以至五謂之端五。”

    按事件說,最初為古代百越地區(長江中下游及以南一帶)崇拜龍圖騰的部族舉行圖騰祭祀的節日。百越之地春秋之前,有在農歷五月初五以龍舟競渡形式舉行部落圖騰祭祀的習俗。后因戰國時期的楚國詩人屈原在該日抱石跳汨羅江自盡,后人為了紀念他,把這天當做節日;部分地區也有紀念伍子胥、介子推、曹娥等說法。而這一天,賽龍舟、吃粽子都與這些事件有關。

    按時節說,端午時值仲夏,是蝎、蛇、蜈蚣、壁虎、蟾蜍、飛蟲出沒之時,也是皮膚病多發季節。這天,門掛艾葉、菖蒲和蒜,喝雄黃酒、掛荷包,洗浴蘭湯,等等,都與仲夏時節相關。另外,這天民間還有祛鬼禳魔的習俗,懸鐘馗畫、桃印門飾、倒災葫蘆等。

    釋文古說道端午,確實如我這位朋友所說,與祭祀、緬懷、驅病邪有關。但我無法評述如此眾多端午節“問好”與“快樂”的祝語,也許這與我們古來今有的期盼美好心理基因與定勢有關,而實際上更多的祭祀、面懷,包括去病邪,人們至終都是為了祈求一個美好的來日。所以說,端午問好與祝愿快樂也不能說為過。

    我國的很多節日,都有祭祀,如上述過的春節、清明節、中秋節,而更多是有著歡慶的節氛。即便是清明節,雖然我們確實不能直說,“清明節快樂”,這大有被誤讀說給死人的咒意領悟,違背了一般人的心態常理,但一家人相聚在一起祭祖掃墓,面懷故人,追記歷史,述說過往情懷,也是一種釋懷。再說,利用清明節日踏青,也有快樂時分,可說“清明踏青快樂”。

    我認為,過節一般有著四種意義:記憶、盡孝、休閑與交往,不管屬于那種,都是有益于心身健康。因此,更多的節日互致“快樂”是可以的,這里所要把握的是時機與用詞的恰情。

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